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Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk, or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms.

Turkey joined the UN in 1945. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen democracy and economy, enabling it to begin accession membership talks with the European Union. 



Location: southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria 

Map references: Middle East 

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior 

Terrain: high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges 

Elevation extremeslowest: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest: Mount Ararat 5,166 m 



















Christmas '05

Spring Day


Population: 69,660,559 (July 2005 est.) 

Government type:  

republican parliamentary democracy 

Capital: Ankara 



Area: total: 780,580 sq km

Land boundaries: total: 2,648 km

border countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Syria,

Coastline:  7,200 km 


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